Chromium (Cr) has a wide range of uses in metals, chemicals, and refractories. It is one of the Nation's most important strategic and critical materials. Chromium use in iron, steel, and nonferrous alloys enhances hardenability and resistance to corrosion and oxidation. The use of chromium to produce stainless steel and nonferrous alloys are two of its more important applications. Other applications are in alloy steel, plating of metals, pigments, leather processing, catalysts, surface treatments, and refractories.
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Open-File Report 2001-381
- Chromium—A National Mineral Commodity Perspective
Open-File Report 2007-1167
- Chromium Life Cycle Study
U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9411
- Chromium—Makes Stainless Steel Stainless
Fact Sheet 2010-3089
- Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Steel Commodity Price Influences
Open-File Report 2007–1257
- Factors that Influence the Price of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rare Earth Elements, and Zn
Open-File Report 2008-1356
- Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States
- Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States
Data Series 140
Metal Prices in the United States through 2010
Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5188
- Statistical Compendium
- Chromium (1969-1990)
- U.S. Mineral Dependence - Statistical Compilation of U.S. and World Mineral Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1990-2010
Open-File Report 2013-1184
- Other Sources of Information
- Boyle, E. H., Jr, Shields, D.J., and Wagner, L.A., 1993, Chromium availability in market economy countries and network flow model analysis of world chromium supply: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9337, 131 p.
- DeYoung, J.H., Jr., Lee, M.P., and Lipin, B.R., 1984, International strategic minerals inventory summary report -- Chromium: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 930-B, 41 p.
- Papp, J.F., and Lipin, B.R., 2006, Chromite in Kogel, J.E., Trivedi, N.C., Barker, J.M., and Drukowski, S.T., Industrial Minerals and Rocks-Commodities, Markets, and Uses, 7th Edition, AIME, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, CO, p. 309-333.
- Papp, J.F., 1988, Superalloy recycling 1976-1986, in Reichman, D.N., Duhl, G.M., Antolovich, S., and Lund, C., Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Superalloys, Champion, PA, September 18-22, 1988, Metall. Soc., AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1988, pp. 367-376.
- Papp, J.F., 1991, Chromium, nickel, and other alloying elements in U.S.-produced stainless and heat-resisting steel: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9275, 41 p.
- Papp, J.F., 1993, Chromium, in Staff, Division of Mineral Commodities, Recycled metals in the United States: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, pp 9-11.
- Papp, J.F., 1993, Chromium, in Staff, Branch of Industrial Minerals and Branch of Metals, Chemical industry applications of industrial minerals and metals: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, pp 35-40.
- Papp, J.F., 1993, Chromium, in Staff, Branch of Metals and Branch of Industrial Minerals, Metal prices in the United States through 1991: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, pp 29-31.
- Papp, J.F., 1994, Chromium life cycle study: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9411, 41 p.
- Papp, J.F., 1994, Chromite in Carr, D.D., Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 6th Edition, AIME, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Littleton, CO, p. 209-228.
- Papp, J.F., 1995, Chromium metal: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9430, 64 p.
- USGS Mineral Commodity Specialist
John F. Papp